英文论文写作”例如”别只会用e. g.

留学生们写很多类型的英文论文的时候肯定会遇到一些举例举证的方法来写,尤其是在议论文中常常需要一些举例论证,这就会用到”例如”这词,如果大家只知道一个e. g.或者for example在文中这有这两词换来换去的用,这样用词累赘对于文中的质量是非常不好的。那么这篇文章就为大家解析一下六种”例如”(such as, for example, e. g. , i. e. , etc. 和et al.)的用法,这些“例如”的用法虽然大体都差不多,但是还是有很多情况都容易混淆,希望留学生们要引起注意,尽量不要出现一些低级错误。

1) for example

用来举例说明,由它引出介绍普遍概念的例子,使用范围要比such as自由。可以出现在句首、句末或有时可作为独立语,插在句中,不影响句子其他部分的语法关系。

例如, Cryptography operations, for example, decryption or signing, in a given period only involve the corresponding temporary secret key without further access to the helper.

同样for example ( e. g. )表示泛泛地举几个例子,并没有囊括所有的实例,其中就已经包含“等等”,如果再加etc. 或and so on,就画蛇添足了。

如论文中出现的这句话是不当的:Writing instructors focus on a number of complex skills that require extensive practice (e. g. , organization, clear expression, logical thinking, etc. 正确的为e. g. , organization, clear expression, and logical thinking.

2)such as

常列举同类人或事物中的几个例子。

其典型的表示式为a plural + such as + single instance( s) of the group to which the plural refers。

正确使用的是: The Arts Faculty deals only with humanities subjects such as history and literature.

混淆使用的是: The Science Faculty deals only with the measurable such as physics and seismology.

论文中常出现such as与and so on或etc. 连用, 这是不正确的。

① 如 It is noted that the features such as clean cut ratio denoted by Rc , die roll height denoted by Hdr and die roll width denoted by Wdr , and so on (有的出现etc.) , are better than the ones with the other models.

应为 It is noted that the features, such as clean cut ratio denoted by Rc , die roll height denoted by Hdr and die roll width denoted by Wdr , are better than the ones with the other models.

当使用such as时,读者已理解后面接着的会是一些不完整的列举,因此不需加上and so on或 etc. 等。

② 因为such as是对前面的复数名词部分起列举作用,若全部列举出,要改用namely,意思为“即”。文章中出现的He knows four languages, such as Chinese, English, Japanese and German,应将such as改成namely(或i. e. )及后面加逗号, 即He knows four languages, namely, Chinese, English, Japanese and German.

③ 用such as来形容复数名词( the plural)可以放在such与as中间,一般插在被列举事物与前面的名词之间。

3) e. g.

是拉丁文exempli gratia的缩写,意思是“举个例子,比如”,等同于“for example”,目的是用例子来说明前面的观点,用法与for example相同。

4) i. e.

源于拉丁语,是id est的简略形式。其意思就是“那就是说,换句话说”,等同于“that is, in other words”和“namely”,目的是用来进一步解释前面所说的观点。

正确的用法是Use a comma to enclose ( i. e. , both before and after) the year in a month day year sequence. 而文章中出现的这句The evaluation noted that the employee had frequently exhibited irresponsible behavior ( i. e. , coming to work late, failing to complete projects) ,应该用“e. g. ”而不是用“i. e. ”,因为插入句是对“irresponsible behavior”的列举补充。

5) etc.

是et cetera的缩写,意思是“等等”,相当于“and so on”。可用来列举事物,若要列举人,则需用et al. 或用and others。

6) et al.

是拉丁文简写。其一为et alibi (以及其他地方) ,相当于and elsewhere;其二为et alii (以及其他人) ,相当于and others。

 

 

猜您喜欢

要发表评论,您必须先登录