留学生,你需要一种正确的学术写作风格

没有一种正确的学术写作风格,但总的来说,它应该力求准确和客观。例如,像“我”和成语(即非正式的语言)这样的人称代词的使用频率要低于其他类型的书写。学生应该在自己的学科领域学习写作的例子,然后努力发展自己的“声音”。

Academic Style
研究下面这一段,poor style的表达。
How to make people work harder is a topic that lots of people have written about in the last few years. There are lots of different theories etc and I think some of them are ok. When we think about this we should remember the old Chinese proverb, that you can lead a horse to water but you can’t make it drink. So how do we increase production? It’s quite a complex subject but I’ll just talk about a couple of ideas.

这段话可以用更合适的style改写:
Motivation has been the subject of numerous studies during recent decades, but this essay will focus on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory (1943) and Herzberg’s two-factor theory (1966). Their contemporary relevance to the need to motivate employees effectively will be examined critically, given that this can be considered crucial to a firm’s survival in the current economic climate.

Guidelines
对于所有的情况,以及所有的学科,都没有适用于学术风格的规则。下面的guidelines可以帮助你形成自己的风格。
(a)不要使用习惯用语或口语词汇: kids, boss. Instead use standard English: children, manager。
(b)准确地使用词汇。rule和law,或者weather和climate之间有区别,如果你研究这些主题,你就会知道它们是什么。

(c)在处理事实或数据时尽可能的精确。避免像a hundred或hundreds of years ago那样的短语。如果有必要估计数字,使用approximately而不是about。
(d)结论应该使用试探性的语言。避免像unemployment causes crime。相反,使用谨慎的短语:unemployment may cause crime或tends to cause crime。
(e)避免显示你的个人态度的副词:luckily,remarkably,surprisingly。

(f)不要收缩动词形式:don’t,can’t。使用完整的形式:do not,cannot。
(g)虽然学术英语倾向于使用被动语态,而不是标准英语,但它不应该被过度使用。两者都是需要的。比较:
Galileo discovered the moons of Jupiter.
The moons of Jupiter were discovered by Galileo.
在第一种情况下,重点是伽利略,在第二种被动语态中,重点是卫星。

(h)避免以下内容:
• like for introducing examples. Use such as or for instance.
• thing and combinations nothing or something. Use factor, issue or topic.
• lots of. Use a significant/considerable number.
• little/big. Use small/large.
• ‘get’ phrases such as get better/worse. Use improve and deteriorate.
• good/bad are simplistic. Use positive/negative (e.g. the changes had several positive aspects).
(i)不使用诸如Why did war break out in 1914? Instead, use statements:
There were three reasons for the outbreak of war . . .

(j)避免在你的文章中编号,除了报告和长文章。使用连接词和符号表达来介绍新的部分(Turning to the question of detecting cancer . . .).
(k)在写列表时,避免使用etc. 或者 and so on。在最后一项: The main products were pharmaceuticals, electronic goods and confectionery.。
(l)避免使用两个词动词,如“as go on ”或“bring up”。使用continue或raise。

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