留学生英文论文注释格式写作方法

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留学生英文论文注释格式写作方法

国外的大学在essay提交过程中为统一格式起见,英语专业学生毕业论文的注释采用尾注和夹注,不采用脚注。凡是对论文中某一单词、词组、引文、或某一说法进行补充性说明的,采用尾注的方式,但在论文里英文统一采用Notes一词;凡是在论文中使用直接引语或间接引语的,一律采用文中夹注的方式。下面美伦教育就为大家盘点一下尾注的基本格式,同时还为大家附上了示例,大家可以参考一下,如果不会尾注的同学们要学习一下,因为英语专业学生毕业论文的注释采用尾注和夹注,不采用脚注,所以大家一定要掌握尾注的写作方法。

1.尾注(End-notes)

在正文需注释处的右上方按顺序加注数码①②③……,在论文的正文之后写注文,每条注文加对应数码,回行时与上一行注文对齐。加注数码与数码对齐。

尾注要包括作者姓名、文章全名、出版社、出版日期。请看下面的例子:

1) 报刊文章引文的注释

Barbara Crosette, “China Outflanks US to Avoid Scrutiny of Its Human Rights.” New York Times, April 24, 1996, p. A12.

Dorn Bonafede, “The Washington Press – An Interview or a Participant in Policy Making,” National Journal 14, April 24, 1982, pp. 716-721, Financial Times, Sept-26, 1997, p. 13.

2) 所引文章收入他人主编的书中

Hao Yunfan, “Environmental Protection and Chinese Foreign Policy,” in Thomas W. Robinson, ed., The Foreign Relations of China’s Environmental Policy (Washington, D. C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1992), p. 166.

3) 转引别人文章中的引文

As quoted in Edward J. Epstein, “The Selection of Reality,” New Yorker, March 3, 1973. p. 41.

4) 引文出自专著

Gordon Chang, “Friends and Enemies, The United States, China, and the Soviet Union, 1948-1972,” Stanford, Ca.: Stanford University Press, 1990, pp. 106-109.

5) 引自手稿、会议发言

Lee Kuan Yew, discussion, International Institute for Strategic Studies meeting, Singapore, Sept, 12, 1997.

David Hale, “How the Rise of Pension Funds Will Change the Global Economy in the 21st Century,” manuscript.

Eugene Ludwig, speech to American Bankers Association, Oct. 8, 1997.

6) 连续几个引文出自一处

Thomas Patterson, “The Mass Media Election,” New York, Praeger, 1980, p. 25.

Ibid., p.30.

Ibid., pp. 44-45.

7) 中文引文

修昔底德:《伯罗奔尼撒战争史》,商务印书馆,1960年,第2页。

2.文中夹注(In-text Citations)

某些引文和/或所依据的文献无需详细注释者,以夹注的形式随文在括弧内注明。

1) 来自专著的直接引语,作者姓名在文中已经出现

格式:出版年份:页码

例如:

Rees(1986:241)said,“hAs key aspects of learning are not stable,but changeable,this opens the way for the role of the teacher as the pre-eminent mediator in the process”.

2)来自专著的直接引语,作者姓名在文中没有出现

格式:作者姓名 出版年份:页码。

例如:

“我们所懂得的只是实体存在的片段,可以肯定地说,一切具有重大意义的理论至多只能是部分地真实,但这不应作为放弃理论研究的借口”(Chomsky 1979:48) 。

“One reason perhaps is that the Chinese audience are more familiar with and receptive  to Western culture than the average English readers is to Chinese culture”(Fung 1995:71).

3) 如果引述的内容为大段原文(超过四行),所引原文左边双倍缩进(即10个字符),右边与上下文对齐。 引文一般用冒号引出,引文不加引号。

例如:

He is aware of the politics of his choice and that English is not the natural medium for his social novel. He describes his process of creation thus: I found, while writing spontaneously, that I was always translating dialogue from the original Punjabi into English. The way in which my mother said something in the dialect of central Punjabi could not have been expressed in any other way except in an almost literal translation, which might carry over the sound and the sense of the original speech. I also found, that I was dreaming or thinking or brooding over two-thirds of the prose narrative in Punjabi, or n Hindustani and only one-third in the English language. This happened usually while I was writing stories and novels. (Anand 1979:36)

注意上述例子中句号与括号的相应位置。

4)来自某篇文章的直接引语,作者姓名在文中没有出现

格式:作者姓名(英文只注姓)、出版年月

例如:

“Everything rests on the notion that there is such a thing as‘just’words—but there isn’t.” (Baston 1972)

5)来自专著的间接引语,作者的姓名在文中已经提到

格式:出版年份:引文页码

例如:

According to Alun Rees(1986:234),the writers focus on the unique contribution that each individual learner brings to the learning situation.

6)来自专著的间接引语,作者的姓名在文中没有提到

格式: 作者姓名、出版年份;引文页码

例如:

It may be true that in the appreciation of medieval art the attitude of the observer is of primary importance.(see Robertson 1987:136)

注:如所述观点可直接从原文找到,用(c.f.: Robertson 1987:136)

7)提到某人的观点(没有提到姓名)

格式:作者姓名,发表年份

例如:

This point has been argued before. (Frye 1998)

A number of studies do not find texts with long series of Terms which derive from a single semantic field. (Thompson 1985; Francis 1989/1990)

8)互联网资料

格式:编号(自设)

例如:

“A deconstructive reading is a reading which analyses the specificity of a text’s critical difference from itself.” (Net.2)

注:Net.2.“征引文献”中的编号,是为了便于注明文内引语的出处。参考第II部分《参考文献格式》中的第5) 点“互联网资料”。

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