技术演变的独特性是不同于前期的制造全球化，全球化不仅影响了日益增长的利益和世界新闻的意义，它还激发了热情的支持者和批评者。这篇文章的主要目的将探讨对可称为绝对或相对的贫穷全球化影响的不同方面。绝对贫穷是不能无限期维持最基本的物质，例如可饮用的水、 食品、 衣服、 卫生保健、 教育和住房水平的情况。而相对贫困是有限资源的情况下或收入相比之下他人一国之内或在全球平均水平。
The essay will first address the positive economic impacts of globalisation which helps to alleviate poverty before moving beyond this traditional aspect into the next part which looks into the positive social aspect – healthcare. However, there will always be two sides to a coin, the third and the fourth part will evaluate the negative impacts of economic and social of globalisation. Finally, the last paragraph will conclude the essay.
Positive impacts on Economy:
Globalisation has caused an amalgamation of financial activities through the market spurred on by the reduction in the cost of transportation and communication and further more increasing the dependency on the market forces [iii] (Wolf, 2004). Since the 1960s, there has been an enhancement to the speed of worldwide transfers of money, employees and knowledge [iv] (Mittelman, 1996). With the advancement in technology, developing countries seems to be the preferred choice of destination for manufacturing to take place. This is due to the outsourcing of multinational corporations in the developing countries to tap into the low cost of production such as on labour and raw materials. As a result, exports will increase and eventually so will the economy. In 1970, there were only about three percent of the total exported manufactured products manufactured in the developing countries but it increased to eighteen percent in 1990. Manufactured products alone contributed about fifty percent of the total export in eight of the eleven large under-developed countries in 1997. These eight large countries were Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Mexico, Pakistan, Thailand and Turkey [v] (Krueger cited in Mandle, 2003, p.15-17). Another example will be in Angola, manufacturing in 1990 was only 5 percent of the Gross Domestic Product but it rose to 7.1 percent in 2009 [vi] (The World Bank, 2010). This is shows the importance of manufacturing and the correlation between exports and economic growth (Mandle, 2003). Therefore, an increase in exports can alleviate poverty especially in under-developed countries since it is a success for them to enter the export market due to low cost of production.
With an increase in exports, Gross Domestic Product and employment rates also rise due to the need to hire more workers to meet the surge in the demand for products. Statistics have shown that, there is an overall increase in the rate of employment in developing countries from 7 million in 1980s to 19 million in 1997 [vii] (Gabel and Bruner cited in Wills, 2009, p.576). The growth will improve the standard of living as more people are working and taking home at least a minimum income which can be spend on basic material needs. Once these needs are met, poverty will be alleviated over time.
The impacts of globalisation on the economy can also be short term. Advancement in technologies causes capital to travel from one place to another within the shortest amount of time [viii] (Leyshon, 1995). This made it easier for poverty – stricken countries to borrow money from the World Bank or International Monetary Fund (IMF) quickly especially during global economic crisis when they are in need of cash. This helps to cushion the impact of poverty by providing the basic level of material comfort to its people or through the development of the country. [ix] Cited from the IMF website, they are even strengthening their loaning capability to countries in need of funds. This shows the success of how this scheme can aid countries to the extent of improving the scheme. Therefore, this positive economic impact can temporarily alleviate poverty and this is made possible through globalisation.
Positive impacts on Tourism:
Globalisation has caused the world to be compressed due to the advancement made in technology. The improvement made to the jet aircraft in 1950s led to the development of longer-range aircraft in the 1980s has decreased the cost of travelling and travelling time [x] (Leyshon, 1995). At the international level, the number of tourist arrivals has increased from 25.3 million in 1950s to 765.1million in 2004 [xi] (World Tourism Organization, 2006). This shows an elevation in the rate of tourism since globalisation. The increase was also aided by the advancement of the media as developing countries can promote tourism based on their natural beauty or heritage via various media tools, and to move away from being dependent on primary commodities that are susceptible to change [xii] (Cater, 1995). Economic benefits include increasing job opportunities and investments causing direct, indirect and induced effects. Direct results are tourists’ spending on food and hotels and as a result, indirectly create employment and investments along the way. Induced effects occur from the expenditure of money in local economy in which money was generated from direct and indirect sources [xiii] (Cater, 1995).
In 1991, approximately 870,000 jobs created from the tourism sector in Thailand [xiv] (Chudintra, 1993). This alone shows the magnitude of tourism can have in a country. The increase in employment will eventually cause income and the purchasing power parity of individuals to rise. As such, the standard of living of the people improves and this helps to alleviate the level of poverty as more people are able to meet the basic level of needs. There is a rapid growth in the International Tourism Expenditure from US$269,247 in 1990 to US$525,079 in 2005 [xv] (World Tourism Organization, 2004). The increase in tourist expenditure will also boost the economy. Take the case of Thailand, tourism has been the country’s biggest foreign currency earner since 1982. From 1989 to 1990, around 50 percent of the share in the Thailand’s service sector was occupied by tourism, contributing an average of 5.45 percent to the Gross National Product (Chudintra, 1993). This shows the importance of tourism in the country. Therefore, the positive economic impact will improve the level of poverty. So far we have only see how globalisation can have a positive impact on the economic aspect. This is traditionally the focus when its impacts are being analysed. However, we need to look at a bigger picture of the impact of globalisation. Thus, the next paragraph will look beyond the economic and analyse on the social aspect as well.
Positive impact on health care:
With the aid of globalisation, the media has evolved tremendously and this plays an important part in promoting healthcare which alleviates poverty especially in under-developing countries. Celebrity activists have made use of the media to garner support from the public and urge them to support various campaigns and issues such as famine and HIV/AIDS (Kuehn, 2008). It can be through concerts such as Live 8 or buying products with proceeds going to the charity organisation such as Product (RED) to aid these countries to counter epidemics and long term diseases [xvi] (Kuehn, 2008). So far, (RED) grants proceed to HIV/AIDS programs in the third world such as Swaziland and Ghana. Activities carried out from these programs varries, in which, about 4.8 million people received HIV testing and counselling. To date, this benefits more than five million people and (RED) associates and events have contributed more than $160 million to support these countries [xvii] ((RED), 2010). Therefore, this shows that globalisation does have a positive impact on health care in which media was used as a tool to promote campaigns and raise awareness.
Negative impact on Economy:
However, globalisation is not without disadvantages on poverty. The impacts of globalisation on economic and healthcare can be detrimental. Some poverty -stricken countries are so poor and have limited resources that in order to generate foreign currencies to pay for other expenditures, such as the cost of imports, will usually turn to other quick desperate means of trade to generate income [xviii] (Yearley, 2005). This is made worst when Northern countries are informed on the detrimental effects of pollution especially hazardous dumps, which are also very costly for proper treatment for disposal. Due to strict government regulations, it is very difficult to dispose such waste in their own homeland and the only solution is to export these dumps into poverty – stricken countries. In need of money, these third world countries usually let pass the detrimental effects and proceed with such trading deals [xix] (Yearley, 2005). When countries do that, it worsens the health of its citizens. In most cases the effects will be so severe that basic health care is not met, causing poverty to worsen from its current state. Not only will the public’s health deteriorate, it harms the environment too. Funds from the economy will have to be set aside to combat environmental issues, resulting in depletion of funds that could be spend on alleviating poverty.
Negative Economic Impacts from Tourism:
Foreign exchange leakages in the economy may occur when transnational companies extend their businesses in developing countries to tap on tourism by the amalgamation of hotel industry and tour companies [xx] (Cater, 1995). Income earned by top managerial employers, profits from tourists expenditures and profits gained from bulk purchase of resources are repatriated back to their parent company based in the developed country [xxi] (Cater, 1995). Therefore even with globalisation, poverty in developing countries will persist. From Cambridge Journals, in 1991, 91% of the tourists in Maldives are on package tours and overseas tour agencies handled almost all less 0.6% of tourists who booked through local tour agencies [xxii] (Hameed cited in Brown et al., 2002, p.320). This shows the extent of dominance of foreign tour agencies in Maldives tourism industry which worsens poverty.
Another problem derived from tourism are seasonality and natural disasters. Employment increases during the peak seasons and not during, say, the monsoon period in Asia during non-peak seasons [xxiii] (Cater, 1995). Just six months after the occurrence of the Tsunami in parts of Thailand, Phuket has lost at least Bt60 billion in tourism revenue. The effect of this natural disaster resulted in 5,000 people being jobless and about 400 hotels, restaurants and souvenir shops to shut down [xxiv] (Sritama, 2005). Moreover, the disaster causes many jobs and incomes to be lost in the informal economy as well [xxv] (Coate et al., 2006). Therefore, due to the volatile nature of tourism, tourism will not alleviate poverty especially in such a situation and this is made worst when the country depends heavily on tourism.
Negative impact on health care:
Although globalisation causes positive impact on the healthcare, there is a widening disparity in the distribution of healthcare within countries and between countries. Therefore, poverty decreases in some parts and worsen in others due to the uneven distribution of health care. In China, since the late 1970s during globalisation, people are living longer and the epidemic diseases occurring have reduced significantly. However, these results were distributed disproportionately across China due to the negligence of the poor during the funding of the medical sector [xxvi] (Khan and Riskin, 2001). Hence, there are places in China without proper healthcare and not having access to the basic healthcare shows in the signs of poverty. Based on the World Bank (cited in Khan and Riskin, 2001), expenditures by the Chinese government have been unsuccessful in extending out to the poor citizens. Studies of public spending over eleven years have shown that more is spent on the richer regions and provinces that have rapid development could be the reason for this uneven distribution.
The conclusion from this essay is that, poverty will remain an important topic in global politics despite various methods to eliminate it. As shown from the argument above, it is not possible to eradicate poverty completely with the evolution of globalisation. Instead, it has proven that there are two sides to a coin, where both positive and negative impacts of globalisation on poverty were presented and this is made even more certain as no country is homogenous. The outcome of globalisation varies. The argument in this essay is that not only does globalisation cause economic impacts; it also extends beyond it and has social impacts as well. The results will either worsen the rate of poverty; causing it to remain status quo or being unevenly spread out.