Alaji Babatunde-在他就业的第三年，他已经是一个高级经理了，管理两个产品线和十一名工作人员。由于无法有效地分配自己的时间，他打算引入一个新的管理的组织架构。他在他的员工中确定了一个合适的人，并在公司外部寻找了第二个人。随着他和杰姆斯达成了共识，他给Jennah Li提供了一个管理的职位，此人是一个认真并得到欣赏的人。不久后，徐亚历克斯，一个年轻的工程师，他是直接向李报告的，他向领导列举了不调和的差异并要求转移到没有经理的小组。李关注许的转移可能会看作会消弱他的部门，坚持他应该继续向她报告。
Since going public Vidsoft Technologies has witnessed rapid expansion and revenue growth. Its CEO, Keith Nash, has created and maintains a strong customer-responsive culture. To uphold levels of motivation employees are given a high degree of autonomy over their work. Teamwork is incentivized and promotions come quickly to those who fit the mold.
Alaji Babatunde – in his third year of employment and already a senior manager – manages two product lines and eleven staff. Unable to allocate his time effectively, he contemplates introducing a new layer of management to the organization structure. Babatunde identifies one suitable candidate among his staff and settles to look outside the company for the second. With the consensus of James White, Babatunde offers a management position to Jennah Li, a conscientious and admired member of the group. Soon after, Alex Hsu, a young engineer and a direct report of Li, cites irreconcilable differences and requests to be transferred to the group without a manager. Li, concerned that Hsu’s transfer may be seen as a sign of weakness on
her part, insists he continue to report to her.
这个情况如何最好的解决？——How can this situation be best resolved?
Babatunde’s first challenge is to understand why the problem manifested itself in the first place. The second is to match his managerial approach to the situation without further negatively impacting the equilibrium of the group. The solution requires a combination of transformational leadership to help Hsu and Li rise above their own self-interests and focus on the organization’s mission, and transactional leadership to maintain structure within the group.
Individuals join work groups for a number of reasons: security, self-esteem, status, affiliation, goal achievement and power (Robbins, Judge, Millett & Waters-Marsh, 2008:299). Work place norms influence how those individuals behave, work, dress and allocate resources. Conformity to these norms is a powerful force that can significantly modify a performance prediction based solely on an individual’s abilities and motivations (Robbins, Judge, Millett & Waters-Marsh, 2008:307).
In his Hawthorne research Elton Mayo (1933) concluded that the workplace is primarily a social system influenced more by social demands than by work environment. A critical and often sensitive issue of group dynamics is authority and control. A person’s perception of their leader greatly determines their attitude toward yielding independence (Clawson, 1983:2). Members wishing to define how much control they have may resist the efforts of those who attempt to exert control over them (Clawson, 1983:2). Hsu doesn’t much care for the social reward the group provides. Detached from the social norms that constrain his peers, Hsu believes his education and technical background give him a degree of status that cannot be matched by Li. Perceiving the new hierarchy to be inequitable, Hsu struggles against the disruption the change brings to his routine.
Babatunde should remain up-front and central during the action. His attitude and actions greatly influence group behaviour. Using the powers of suggestion, emotion and logic, Babatunde can promote group initiative and rebuild group morale. He has a much better chance of success if he uses this approach rather than trying to coerce group members to accept decisions. Babatunde must continue to motivate and rally the group, constantly listening, reassuring and enthusing its members. It is through an unswerving commitment to the group, that the group will maintain it cohesiveness and high levels of performance.
Transferring Hsu to the other product line to reduce tension will likely do little more than aggravate an already delicate situation. Babatunde should continue with the new layer of management and, being mindful to address any doubts and concerns held within the group, sell a compelling reason for change (Robbins, 2002). Without vision and sense of mission, group members may reach their own decision whether to commit to the new procedures. Babatunde should conduct further meetings with group members to ensure they understand the reporting structure and their responsibilities, all the while sharing his knowledge and experience to increase their confidence and expand the breadth of their interests and needs. A favorable outcome, Hsu and Li realize they can learn a lot from each other. They are able to move forward and build an effective working relationship. An unfavorable outcome, Hsu refuses to play ball. If this happens, a hard decision will need to be made. Babatunde should not tolerate a non-team player who puts his own interests above those of the organization. For Li, enrolling her in technical courses, in addition to direct supervision and on the job training, will be of great benefit to her long term development. As her confidence grows, she will need to step up and start behaving like a leader. She will gain the respect of the group through her leadership qualities and personal achievements. The development of all group members should be ongoing whilst they remain with the organization.
激励是关键——Motivation is the key
You can take a horse to water but you can’t force it to drink. So to with people. Employees are motivated or driven to work intrinsically or through some external incentive (Robbins, Judge, Millett & Waters-Marsh, 2008:183). These include positive reinforcement, punishment and reward, approval and recognition, job enrichment, goal setting and satisfying needs. Effectively, motivation is a means by which to move a group or individual towards some desired state.
McClelland’s theory states that achievement, power and affiliation are needs that help explain motivation. People with a high need for achievement want to do things better. They seek responsibility and perform best when a situation involves a degree of uncertainty. Those with a high need for affiliation seek meaningful relationships, preferring situations of cooperation over competition. Those with a high need for power seek opportunities to manage others. Quite the opposite to those with high affiliation needs they prefer competitive and status-oriented situations. McClelland’s theory allows that if a job requires high affiliation, a manager can develop a candidate through a system of training (Robbins, Judge, Millett & Waters-Marsh, 2008:188) and OB Mod.
Without resistance, organizations would lead a chaotic existence (Thietart & Forgues, 1995:19). Resistance may be overt, implicit, immediate or deferred (Robbins, Judge, Millett & Waters-Marsh, 2008:650), though it is easier to deal with when it is immediate and overt. In this instance Hsu quickly responds to Li’s promotion by voicing his complaints. The source of resistance is rooted in his character, perception, personality and needs (Robbins, Judge, Millett & Waters-Marsh, 2008:650).
Babatunde can employ a number of tactics to manage resistance to change:
He can communicate his vision to help group members see the logic of change.
He can bring those affected into the decision making process, obtaining commitment and improving the quality of the decision.
He can offer supportive efforts to improve emotional commitment to change.
He can provide incentives that appeal to individual needs.
As a final resort, if a group or individual remain resistant to change, there is always the option to punish, threat or force. A major drawback of coercion is that it has a tendency to backfire, resulting in the diminished credibility of the agent of change.
Babatunde如何来避免这一情况？——What could Babatunde have done differently to avoid this situation?
This situation may have been avoided if Babatunde had discussed his strategy and vision with his team before instigating the change. This includes not only the promotion of Li, but his intention to hire a second manager from outside the organization. The benefits of change should have been clearly communicated to the team so as to obtain their commitment and support. Babatunde needs to engage the group in the strategy and ensure their energies are behind it. This will result in better teamwork, higher productivity and improved levels of customer satisfaction which in turn will bring promotion and financial reward for the group.
“The more people contribute to answering the how questions, the more they will buy into making the how work” (Robbins, 2002:4)
Communication comes in many forms. With small teams it is more effective and efficient to maintain face-to-face, two-way communication, and to keep members abreast of what is happening and why. All employees should be given the opportunity to ask and raise questions. This provides management with a better understanding of individual perspectives and a means by which to gain support. Interactive communications help reduce misinterpretation, misinformation and misrepresentation, easing concerns and reducing the likelihood of surprises to ensure strategy is implemented effectively. Babatunde needs to lead and inspire his followers to greater accomplishments to increase the value of the department and to contribute to the overall profitability, market share and reputation of the organization.
In today’s workplace, culture plays an essential role. From an employee standpoint it reduces ambiguity, by emphasizing what is important and how things should be done. Once established, culture rarely fades. Culture becomes a liability when it threatens to hinder change or limits organizational effectiveness (Robbins, Judge, Millett & Waters-Marsh, 2008:582).
The goal of the selection process is to identify and hire the person with the knowledge, skills and abilities to perform a job efficiently (Robbins, Judge, Millett & Waters-Marsh, 2008:585). Management who seek to bring a variety of experiences into an organization may, consciously or sub-consciously, place considerable pressure on the new hires to adapt to the existing culture (Robbins, Judge, Millett & Waters-Marsh, 2008:583), effectively eliminating the unique strengths that they bring to the organization. Human resource practices, such as hiring people better than one self, act to keep a culture alive. Those who fit with the culture are rewarded, those who don’t are penalized.
In response to changing market conditions – business expansion, lack of talent pool available due to competition – new organizational cultures evolve. Some veteran employees may not notice the shift, continuing to operate under an outdated set of parameters and expectations. Changes to strategic vision, culture and policy should be clearly communicated through memo, townhall, roundtables and face-to-face meetings to ensure employees are made aware of the change. Ongoing feedback is required to ensure employee commitment and reward systems realigned (if necessary) to reflect and support the change. In the case of Vidsoft, in addition to rewarding teamwork and individual performance for high customer satisfaction scores, an employee referral award system could be introduced for employees who refer suitable candidates.
In organization structure, it is essential that the roles and responsibilities of group members are clearly defined. Due process can be applied to evaluations to increase the perception of fairness; a system characterized by three features (Robbins, Judge, Millett & Waters-Marsh, 2008:617):
Individuals are provided with ample notice of what is expected.
All evidence is aired to permit the affected individuals to respond.
The final decision is made free of bias based on the evidence.
Managing diversity in the workplace can help reduce employee conflicts (Robbins, Judge, Millett & Waters-Marsh, 2008:632). The focus of many diversity programs is training. Companies who value diversity genuinely value individual differences. A continuous and consistent investment in human resources is essential to ensuring increased levels of performance and decreased incidence of dysfunctional behaviour.
What are the principal distinctions between transactional and transformational leadership?
The principal distinction between transactional and transformational leadership is that the transformational leader motivates others to do more than they are originally expected to do (Bass,1985:31).
Transactional leaders identify what actions followers need to take to achieve desired outcomes (Bass, 1985:27). They clarify task requirements and maintain stability through a process of economic and social exchanges (Hay, 2007:2). Both leaders and followers work towards specific goals relying on reward and punishment to promote performance. Should the quality of work or level of compliance fail to meet pre-determined standards punishment or corrective action is enforced. Equally, to raise levels of performance and compliance followers may be given a degree of control over the reward (Hay, 2007:2). How these rewards are delivered and how consistent they are, arbitrate the degree of their influence (Bass, 1985: 28).
In transactional leadership the focus is on short-term tasks. This has implications for knowledge-based and creative work (Bryant, 2003:37) as job descriptions in these areas can be difficult to evaluate. The relationship between leader and follower is temporary. Once a transaction is complete the relationship may need renegotiating (Hay, 2007:2). Workers can do little else to improve job satisfaction. Whilst not the most appealing strategy in terms of developing relationships and long-term motivation, transactional leadership used effectively gets things done.
The components of transactional leadership are set out in Table 1.
Exchange of rewards for effort and compliance.
Goal achievement rewarded and accomplishments recognized.
Goals reached equates to individuals and groups achieving expected levels of performance.
Management by exception (active)
Leader specifies acceptable levels of performance and productivity.
If deviation from the accepted levels is witnessed corrective action is taken.
Management by exception (passive)
Problems arise before the leader acts.
No agreements specified.
No expectations set.
Goals and standards avoided.
Table 1 (Adapted from Hay, 2007:2)
Transformational leadership is defined as a process in which leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation (Hay, 2007: 3). Appealing to the higher ideals and values of followers; it is rooted in theories of commitment and trust rather than power and coercion.
Transformational leadership starts with the development of a vision – this may come from the leader or the group – the leader then engages in selling that vision to others (Hay, 2007:3). The leader then attempts to inspire followers to expedite the vision. In some circumstances followers are able to set aside their personal interests and replace them with this renewed purpose. Bass suggests that transformational leaders are able to encourage higher levels of commitment, motivation and performance by focusing on the needs and development of individuals (Robbins, Judge, Millett & Waters-Marsh, 2008:432). According to Burns (1978), focusing on needs makes leaders accountable to their followers. The characteristics that define transformational leaders are set out in Table 2.
Provides a vision and a sense mission, instilling pride, faith, respect and trust in their followers.
Communicates high expectations and expresses purpose.
Promotes innovation, rationality and problem solving.
Gives personal attention, coaches and advises.
Table 2 (Adapted from Bass, 1990:22)
Transformational leadership should continue to be utilized at Vidsoft to facilitate creativity, innovation and organizational knowledge. Transactional leadership is required at the organizational level to establish structures and policies.
How does transformational leadership create a higher level of moral aspiration for followers and leaders alike?
The process of transformational leadership is founded on empathy, understanding, insight, and consideration. It creates higher levels of moral aspiration for followers and leaders by drawing deeply from personally held value systems. Assuming the role of consultant, coach and teacher, the transformational leader inspires involvement and participation in a mission, solidifying the message with simple words, images and reminders (Bass, 1985:27). This starts at a level of effort equivalent to a follower’s current level of confidence and desire for designated outcomes (Bass, 1985:31). The leader then motivates the follower by increasing their confidence and elevating the value of outcomes by expanding the level or breadth of their interests and needs (Bass, 1985:31). Despite their greater knowledge and experience, leaders remain friendly and treat followers as equals, providing a model of integrity and fairness and setting clear and high standards of performance (Bass, 1985:33). Given autonomy over their work, followers are encouraged with advice, help, support, recognition and openness. Leaders freely share their knowledge and expertise and remain informal and accessible. Total commitment to, and belief in, the organization emerges as a consequence of belief and heightened self-confidence (Bass, 1985:33).